QED Working Paper Number

Inference using difference-in-differences with clustered data requires care. Previous research has shown that, when there are few treated clusters, t-tests based on cluster-robust variance estimators (CRVEs) severely overreject, and different variants of the wild cluster bootstrap can either overreject or underreject dramatically. We study two randomization inference (RI) procedures. A procedure based on estimated coefficients may be unreliable when clusters are heterogeneous. A procedure based on t-statistics typically performs better (although by no means perfectly) under the null, but at the cost of some power loss. An empirical example demonstrates that alternative procedures can yield dramatically different inferences.

JEL Codes
grouped data
clustered data
panel data
randomization inference
wild cluster bootstrap
Working Paper